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قدیمی 05-18-2011
آموزش لینوکس AP آواتار ها
آموزش لینوکس AP آموزش لینوکس AP آنلاین نیست.
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تاریخ عضویت: Jan 2009
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پیش فرض Installing a package manually in Ubuntu

Installing a package manually in Ubuntu
مقاله آموزشی لینوکس



Are you absolutely sure you can't find the package in Synaptic? Did you try enabling extra repositories? If you've tried all this with little or no success, here's how you do it the Windows-style way. Download a package (.deb, .rpm, .tar.gz, .package, klik:// ? .cmg, .sh, .bin, .exe) and let's have a look.
Installing a ...


  • Debian Package (.deb)
When you download a program with the package manager, you actually download Debian packages! It's possible to install individual Debian packages you've downloaded yourself, but unless they're built specifically for Ubuntu, they're not guaranteed to work. Installing them is rather simple in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake: double-click the package in Nautilus or on your desktop and a package installer will show up. You simply press Install Package to install. If you have a missing dependency, it will inform you of that. It will also inform you if there's a newer version available from the repositories!

Another way to install a Debian package is to use the command dpkg which is what the package manager uses to manipulate Debian packages (or short: debs). The syntax is as follows: if your package is located on your desktop and your username is carl, then you install the package test.deb with dpkg -i /home/carl/Desktop/test.deb. You need to take care of dependencies yourself, so it's not the optimal way of installing software.

  • RPM Package (.rpm)
RPM is another popular way of packaging software, and it's used by popular distributions such as Fedora Core, SUSE Linux and Mandriva. RPM is not used by the Ubuntu Package Manager, but there does exist a command for converting an RPM into a Deb; this doesn't mean that any RPM will work on your system, though! The same program can also install the RPM directly so that you won't have to do this yourself. The command is not available right away so you'll need to install it yourself - the package is called alien and is of course available through Synaptic. If the user carl wants to install an RPM called test.rpm located on his desktop, he will enter sudo alien -i /home/carl/Desktop/test.rpm.
Desktop Theme (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Installing themes[4] is relatively painless in Gnome. You open the Theme Preferences which you'll find at System ? Preferences ? Theme. With this application you can change icons, controls and window borders to your liking. To install your theme, simply drag and drop the package onto the Theme Preferences window and confirm the dialog window that pops up. To use your new theme, edit one of the existing themes to use your new icons, controls or window borders.


  • Installing a new desktop theme
Click Install to install the new desktop theme
Login Screen Theme (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Installing themes for your login screen is as simple as installing desktop themes. You open up Login Window Preferences in System ? Administration ? Login Screen and drag and drop your theme onto the window. Confirm the dialog window that pops up. To use your new theme, select it in the list of themes.


  • Installing a new login screen theme
Click Install to install the new login screen theme
Source Package (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Note: not all files with an extension named .tar, .tar.gz, and so on are archives with source code in them - they might be precompiled! If the archive is precompiled, there should be an installer or a binary executable inside it.


Sometimes all you've got is a package full of uncompiled source code. Luckily, you don't need to be a programmer to know how to compile and install a package with source code. Back in the old days, this was the only way to install software on Linux and there is a standard way of installing these files. It will not work in every case, but it will in most (if you have the right dependencies installed). To compile a package you must first extract it somewhere. This is easily done, simply right-click on the package and select Extract Here.






Are you absolutely sure you can't find the package in Synaptic? Did you try enabling extra repositories? If you've tried all this with little or no success, here's how you do it the Windows-style way. Download a package (.deb, .rpm, .tar.gz, .package, klik:// ? .cmg, .sh, .bin, .exe) and let's have a look.
Installing a ...


  • Debian Package (.deb)
When you download a program with the package manager, you actually download Debian packages! It's possible to install individual Debian packages you've downloaded yourself, but unless they're built specifically for Ubuntu, they're not guaranteed to work. Installing them is rather simple in Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake: double-click the package in Nautilus or on your desktop and a package installer will show up. You simply press Install Package to install. If you have a missing dependency, it will inform you of that. It will also inform you if there's a newer version available from the repositories!

Another way to install a Debian package is to use the command dpkg which is what the package manager uses to manipulate Debian packages (or short: debs). The syntax is as follows: if your package is located on your desktop and your username is carl, then you install the package test.deb with dpkg -i /home/carl/Desktop/test.deb. You need to take care of dependencies yourself, so it's not the optimal way of installing software.

  • RPM Package (.rpm)
RPM is another popular way of packaging software, and it's used by popular distributions such as Fedora Core, SUSE Linux and Mandriva. RPM is not used by the Ubuntu Package Manager, but there does exist a command for converting an RPM into a Deb; this doesn't mean that any RPM will work on your system, though! The same program can also install the RPM directly so that you won't have to do this yourself. The command is not available right away so you'll need to install it yourself - the package is called alien and is of course available through Synaptic. If the user carl wants to install an RPM called test.rpm located on his desktop, he will enter sudo alien -i /home/carl/Desktop/test.rpm.
Desktop Theme (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Installing themes[4] is relatively painless in Gnome. You open the Theme Preferences which you'll find at System ? Preferences ? Theme. With this application you can change icons, controls and window borders to your liking. To install your theme, simply drag and drop the package onto the Theme Preferences window and confirm the dialog window that pops up. To use your new theme, edit one of the existing themes to use your new icons, controls or window borders.


  • Installing a new desktop theme
Click Install to install the new desktop theme
Login Screen Theme (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Installing themes for your login screen is as simple as installing desktop themes. You open up Login Window Preferences in System ? Administration ? Login Screen and drag and drop your theme onto the window. Confirm the dialog window that pops up. To use your new theme, select it in the list of themes.


  • Installing a new login screen theme
Click Install to install the new login screen theme
Source Package (.tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .tar.bz, ...)
Note: not all files with an extension named .tar, .tar.gz, and so on are archives with source code in them - they might be precompiled! If the archive is precompiled, there should be an installer or a binary executable inside it.


Sometimes all you've got is a package full of uncompiled source code. Luckily, you don't need to be a programmer to know how to compile and install a package with source code. Back in the old days, this was the only way to install software on Linux and there is a standard way of installing these files. It will not work in every case, but it will in most (if you have the right dependencies installed). To compile a package you must first extract it somewhere. This is easily done, simply right-click on the package and select Extract Here.






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